In our ISO junior college we have,
It is a pre-university course which lasts for about 2 years. Medical students usually take up this course. You can choose this option after you complete your 10th grade.
NEET is single entrance test for admissions to more than 60,000 seats in MBBS / BDS colleges across India. NEET (UG) is applicable for admission to MBBS / BDS Courses in India in Medical / Dental Colleges run with the approval of Medical Council of India / Dental Council of India under the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
The National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET) UG will be conducted by the NTA from 2019 onwards. This Test was being conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) till 2018.
NEET (UG) is applicable for admission to MBBS/BDS Courses in India in Medical/Dental Colleges run with the approval of Medical Council of India/Dental Council of India under the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India except for the institutions established through an Act of Parliament i.e. AIIMS and JIPMER Puducherry.
NEET Score will also be considered for other streams like Agriculture, Indian Medicine, Para-medical and Veterinary. NEET will be conducted only in Off-line mode across India.
National Testing Agency (NTA) will conduct NEET (UG Indian Citizens/Overseas Citizens of India intending to pursue MBBS/BDS from a foreign Medical/Dental Institute need to qualify NEET (UG Seats of AYUSH Degrees namely BAMS, BNYS, BUMS, BSMS and BHMS shall also be filled by considering the merit list of NEET (UG)
TELANGANA STATE BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION,
BOTANY – I
Unit-I DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD 30 Periods
The living world
What is living? – Diversity in the living world; Taxonomic categories and Taxonomic aids
Five kingdom classification – Monera, Protista, Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia,
Three domains of life (six kingdom classification), Viruses, Viroids, Prions& Lichens
Science of plants – Botany
Origin, Development, and Branches of Botany, Scope of Botany and Branches of Botany
Salient features, classification and alteration of generations of the plants of the following groups
– Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
UNIT – II STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS-MORPHOLOGY 20 Periods
Morphology of flowering plants Vegetative:
Parts of a typical Angiospermic plant; Vegetative morphology and modifications- Root, Stem and
Leaf- types; Venation, Phyllotaxy.
Inflorescence – Racemose, Cymose and special types (in brief). Flower : Parts of a flower and
their detailed description; Aestivation, Placentation.
Fruits : Types- True, False and parthenocarpic fruits.
UNIT-III : REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS 25 Periods
Modes of Reproduction
Asexual reproduction, binary fission, Sporulation, budding, fragmentation, vegetative
propagation in plants, Sexual reproduction in brief, Overview of angiosperm life cycle.
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS
Stamen, microsporangium, pollen grain. Pistil, megasporangium (ovule) and embryo sac;
Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination – Types, agents , Out breeding
devices and Pollen – Pistil interaction. Double Fertilization; Post fertilisation events:
Development of endosperm and embryo; development of seed, Structure of Dicotyledonous and
Monocotyledonous seeds, Significance of fruit and seed. Special modes – Apomixis,
UNIT-IV: PLANT SYSTAMATICS 10 Periods
Taxonomy of angiosperms
Introduction. Types of Systems of classification (In brief).Semi-Technical description of a typical
flowering plant Description of Families: Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Liliaceae.
UNIT-V: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS 35 Periods
CELL: THE UNIT OF LIFE
Cell- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life- overview of the cell. Prokaryotic cells,
Ultra Structure of Plant cell (structure in detail and functions in brief), Cell
membrane, Cell wall, Cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Plastids,
Ribosomes, Golgi bodies, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Microbodies, Centrosome and
Centriole, Cilia, Flagella, Cytoskeleton and Nucleus. Chromosomes: Number,
structural organization; Nucleosome.
Structure and function of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic acids.
Cell cycle and cell division
Cell cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis – significance.
UNIT-VI : INTERNAL ORGANISATION OF PLANTS 25 Periods
HISTOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
Tissues – Types, structure and functions: Meristematic; Permanent tissues – Simple and
Complex tissues. Tissue systems – Types, structure and function: Epidermal, Ground and
Vascular tissue systems. Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous plants – Root,
Stem and Leaf. Secondary growth in Dicot stem and Dicot root.
UNIT-VII : PLANT ECOLOGY 12 Periods
ECOLOGICAL ADAPTATION,SUCCESSION AND ECOLOGICAL SERVICES
Introduction. Plant communities and Ecological adaptations: Hydrophytes, Mesophytes and
Xerophytes. Plant succession. Ecological services – Carbon fixation, Oxygen release and
pollination (in brief).
PHYSICS – I
CHAPTER – 1: PHYSICAL WORLD
1.1. What is Physics ?
1.2. Scope and excitement of physics
1.3. Physics, technology and society
1.4. Fundamental forces in nature
1.5. Nature of physical laws
CHAPTER –2: UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS
2.2 The International system of units
2.3 Measurement of length, Measurement of Large Distances, Estimation of Very
Small Distances: Size of Molecule, Range of Lengths
2.4 Measurement of Mass, Range of Mass
2.5 Measurement of Time
2.6 Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement, Systematic
errors, random errors, least count error, Absolute Error, Relative Error and
Percentage Error, Combination of Errors
2.7 Significant Figures, Rules for Arithmetic Operations with Significant Figures,
Rounding off the Uncertain Digits, Rules for Etermining the Uncertainly in the
Results of Arithmatic Calculations
2.8 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
2.9 Dimensional Formulae and dimensional equations
2.10 Dimensional Analysis and its Applications, Checking the Dimensional Consistency
of Equations, Deducting Ration among the Physical Quantities
Chapter-3: MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
3.2 Position, Path Length and Displacement
3.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed
3.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
3.6 Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion
3.7 Relative velocity
– Elements of Calculus
Chapter –4: MOTION IN A PLANE
4.2 Scalars and Vectors, Position and Displacement Vectors, Equality of Vectors
4.3 Multiplication of Vectors by real members
4.4 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors – graphical method
4.5 Resolution of vectors
4.6 Vector addition Analytical method
4.7 Motion in a plane, Position Vector and Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration
4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration
4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions
4.10 Projectile Motion, Equation of path of a projectile, Time of Maximum height,
Maximum height of a projectile, Horizontal range of projectile
4.11 Uniform circular motion
Chapter-5: LAWS OF MOTION
5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy
5.3 The law of inertia
5.4 Newton’s first law of Motion
5.5 Newton’s second law of Motion
5.6 Newton’s third law of Motion, Impulse
5.7 Conservation of momentum
5.8 Equilibrium of a particle
5.9 Common forces in Mechanics, Friction
5.10 Circular Motion, Motion of a car on a level road, Motion of a car on a banked road
5.11 Solving problems in Mechanics
Chapter –6: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
6.2 Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: The work-energy theorem.
6.4 Kinetic Energy
6.5 Work done by a variable force
6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force
6.7 The concept of Potential Energy
6.8 The conservation of Mechanical Energy
6.9 The Potential Energy of a spring
6.10 Various forms of energy: the law of conservation of Energy. Heat, Chemical
Energy, Electrical Energy, The Equivalence of a Mass and Energy, Nuclear
Energy, The Principle of Conservation of Energy.
6.12 Collisions, Elastic and Inelastic Collisions, Collisions in one dimension, Coefficent
– Power consumption in walking
Chapter-7: SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION
7.1 Introduction, What kind of motion can a rigid body have?
7.2 Centre of mass. Centre of gravity
7.3 Motion of Centre of Mass
7.4 Linear momentum of a System of particles
7.5 Vector product of Two Vectors
7.6 Angular Velocity and its relation with linear velocity, Angular acceleration,
kinematics of Rotational motion about a fixed axis.
7.7 Torque and angular Momentum, Moment of force (Torque), Angular momentum
of a particle, Torque and angular momentum for a system of a particles,
conservation of angular momentum
7.8 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body, Principle of moments
7.9 Moment of Inertia
7.10 Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axis, Theorem of perpendicular axes,
Theorem of parallel axes
7.11 Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis.
7.12 Angular momentum in case of rotations about a fixed axis, Conservation of
7.13 Rolling Motion, Kinetic Energy of Rolling Motion
Chapter 8: OSCILLATIONS
8.2 Periodic and Oscillatory Motions, Period and frequency, Displacement
8.3 Simple Harmonic Motions (SHM)
8.4 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
8.5 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
8.6 Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
8.7 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
8.8 Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion, Oscillations due to a Spring,
The Simple Pendulum
8.9 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
8.10 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
Chapter –9: GRAVITATION
9.2 Kepler’s Laws
9.3 Universal Law of Gravitation
9.4 The Gravitational Constant
9.5 Acceleration due to Gravity of the Earth
9.6 Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of Earth
9.7 Gravitational Potential Energy
9.8 Escape Speed
9.9 Earth Satellite
9.10 Energy of an orbiting satellite
9.11 Geostationary and Polar satellites
Chater –10: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
10.2 Elastic behavior of Solids
10.3 Stress and Strain
10.4 Hook’s law
10.5 Stress – strain curve
10.6 Elastic Moduli, Young’s Modulus, Determination of Yong’s Modulus of the Material
of a Wire, Shear Modulus Bulk Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio.
10.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of Materials.
Chapter – 11: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
11.2 Pressure, Pascal’s Law, Variation of Pressure with Depth, Atmospheric Pressure
and Gauge Pressure, Hydraulic Machines
11.3 Streamline flow
11.4 Bernoulli’s principle, Speed of Efflux, Torricelli’s Law, Venturi-meter, Blood Flow
and Heart Attack, Dynamic Lift
11.5 Viscosity, Variation of Viscosity of fluids with temperature, Stoke’s Law
11.6 Reynolds number
11.7 Surface Tension, Surface Energy, Surface Energy and Surface Tension, Angle of
Contact, Drops and Bubbles, Capillary Rise, Detergents and Surface Tension;
What is blood pressure
Chapter – 12: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
12.2 Temperature and Heat
12.3 Measurement of Temperature
12.4 Ideal – Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature
12.5 Thermal Expansion
12.6 Specific Heat Capacity
12.8 Charge of State, Regelation, Latent Heat
12.9 Heat transfer, Conduction, thermal conductivity, Convection, Radiation,
Blackbody Radiation, Greenhouse Effect
12.10 Newton’s Law of Cooling.
Chapter –13: THERMODYNAMICS:
13.2 Thermal Equilibrium
13.3 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
13.4 Heat, Internal Energy and Work
13.5 First Law of Thermodynamics
13.6 Specific Heat Capacity
13.7 Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
13.8 Thermodynamic Processes, Quasi-static Isothermal Process, Adiabatic Process,
Irochoric Process, Cyclic Process.
13.9 Heat Engines
13.10 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
13.11 Second Law of Thermodynamics
13.12 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
13.13 Carrot Engine, Carnot’s Theorem.
CHAPTER – 14: KINETIC THEORY
14.2 Molecular Nature of Matter
14.3 Behaviour of Gases
14.4 Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas, Pressure of an Ideal Gas
14.5 Laws of equipartition of energy
14.6 Specific Heat Capacity, Monatomic Gases, Diatomic Gases, Polyatomic Gases,
Specific Heat Capacity of Solids, Specific Heat Capacity of Water
14.7 Mean Free Path
CHEMISTRY – I
01 ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.1 Sub- atomic particles. 1.2 Atomic models- Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom.
1.3 Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom. 1.3.1 Nature of electromagnetic radiation.
1.3.2 Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation- Planck’s quantum theory. 1.4 Bohr’s
model for hydrogen atom. 1.4.1 Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen. 1.4.2 Limitations
of Bohr’s model. 1.5 Quantum mechanical considerations of sub atomic particles. 1.5.1 Dual
behaviour of matter. 1.5.2 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. 1.6 Quantum mechanical
model of an atom. Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom. 1.6.1 Orbitals
and quantum numbers. 1.6.2 Shapes of atomic orbitals. 1.6.3 Energies of orbitals. 1.6.4
Filling of orbitals in atoms, aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of
maximum multiplicity. 1.6.5 Electronic configurations of atoms. 1.6.6 Stability of half filled
and completely filled orbitals.
02 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY OF PROPERTIES
2.1 Need to classify elements. 2.2 Genesis of periodic classification. 2.3 Modern periodic law
and present form of the periodic table. 2.4 Nomenclature of elements with atomic number
greater than 100. 2.5 Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table.
2.6 Electronic configuration and types of elements s.p.d. and f blocks. 2.7.1 Trends in
physical properties: (a) Atomic radius, (b) Ionic radius, (c) Variation of size in inner
transition elements, (d) Ionization enthalpy, (e) Electron gain enthalpy, (f) Electro
negativity. 2.7.2 Periodic trends in chemical properties: (a) Valence or Oxidation states,
(b) Anomalous properties of second period elements – diagonal relationship. 2.7.3 Periodic
trends and chemical reactivity
03 CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
3.1 Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding. 3.2 Ionic or electrovalent bond – Factors
favourable for the formation of ionic compounds-Crystal structure of sodium chloride-General
properties of ionic compounds. 3.3 Bond Parameters – bond length, bond angle, bond enthalpy,
bond order, and resonance-Polarity of bonds dipole moment. 3.4 Valence Shell Electron Pair
Repulsion (VSEPR) theories. Predicting the geometry of simple molecules. 3.5 Valence bond
theory-Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals
strength of sigma and pi bonds-Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds. 3.6
Hybridisation-different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals- shapes of simple
covalent molecules. 3.7 Coordinate bond -definition with examples. 3.8 Molecular orbital theory
– Formation of molecular orbitals. Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-conditions for
combination of atomic orbitals – Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals -Bonding in some
homo nuclear diatomic molecules- H2, He2, Li2, B2, C2, N2 and 02. 3.9 Hydrogen bonding-cause
of formation of hydrogen bond-Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular-General
properties of hydrogen bonds.
04 STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS
4. 1 Intermolecular forces. 4 2 Thermal Energy. 4.3 Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal
interactions. 4.4 The Gaseous State. 4.5 The Gas Laws. 4.6 Ideal gas equation.
4.7 Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s Law of partial pressures. 4.8 Kinetic molecular
theory of gases. 4.9 Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas (No derivation)- Deduction of gas
laws from Kinetic gas equation. 4.10 Distribution of molecular speeds – rms. average and
most probable speeds-Kinetic energy of gas molecules. 4.11 Behaviour of real gases –
Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour – Compressibility factor Vs Pressure diagrams of real
gases. 4.12 Liquefaction of gases. 4.13 Liquid State – Properties of Liquids in terms of Inter
molecular interactions – Vapour pressure. Viscosity and Surface tension (Qualitative idea
only. No mathematical derivation).
5.1 Some Basic Concepts – Properties of matter – uncertainty in Measurement-significant
figures, dimensional analysis 5.2 Laws of Chemical Combinations – Law of Conservation of
mass, law of definite proportions, law of multiple proportions, Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous
volumes, Dalton’s atomic theory, Avogadro law, principles and examples. 5.3 Atomic and
molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass concept of equivalent weight.
5.4 Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular
formulae of compounds. 5.5 Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations.
5.6 Methods of expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction,
molarity, molality and normality. 5.7 Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions,
oxidation and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer. 5.8
Oxidation number concept. 5.9 Types of Redox reactions-combination, decomposition,
displacement and disproportionation reactions. 5.10 Balancing of redox reactions –
oxidation number method, half reaction (ioa-electron) method. 5.11 Redox reactions in
6.1 Thermodynamic terms. 6.1.1 The system and the surroundings. 6.1.2. Types of systems
and surroundings. 6.1.3 The state of the system. 6.1.4 The Internal Energy as a state
function, (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics. 6.2
Applications. 6.2.1 Work. 6.2.2 Enthalpy. H- a useful new state function. 6.2.3 Extensive and
intensive properties. 6.2.4 Heat capacity. 6.2.5 The relationship between Cp and Cv. 6.3
Measurement of “U and H”: caiorimetry. 6.4 Enthalpy change, ‘rH’ of reactions – reaction
Enthalpy, (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions, (b) Enthalpy changes during transformations,
(c) Standard enthalpy of formation, (d) Thermo chemical equations, (e) Hess’s law of
constant Heat summation. 6.5 Enthalpies for different types of reactions, (a) Standard
enthalpy of combustion (“c H°) (b) Enthalpy of atomization (“a Ho). phase transition,
sublimation and ionization, (c) Bond Enthalpy (“bond Hf ) (d) Enthalpy of solution (“sol f )
and dilution. 6.6 Spontaneity, (a) Is decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? (b)
Entropy and spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, (c) Gibbs Energy and
spontaneity. 6.7 Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium. 6.8 Absolute entropy and the third
law of thermodynamics.
07 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES
7.1 Equilibrium in physical process. 7.2 Equilibrium in chemical process – dynamic
equilibrium. 7.3 Law of chemical equilibrium – Law of mass action and equilibrium
constant. 7.4 Homogeneous equilibria, equilibrium constant in gaseous systems,
Relationship between KP, and KC 7.5 Heterogeneous equilibria. 7.6 Applications of
equilibrium constant. 7.7 Relationship between equilibrium constant K, reaction quotient
Q and Gibbs energy G. 7.8 Factors affecting equilibria.- Le-chatelier’s principle
application to industrial synthesis of ammonia and sulphur trioxide. J.9 Ionic Equilibrium
in solutions. 7.10 Acids, bases and salts- Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts
of acids and bases. 7.11 Ionisation of acids and bases -Ionisation constant of water and
it’s ionic product- pH scale-ionisation constants, of weak acids-ionisation of weak basesrelation
between Ka and Kb and poly basic acids and di and poly acidic bases-factors
affecting acid strength-common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-hydrolysis
of salts and pH of their solutions. 7.12 Buffer solutions-designing of buffer solutionpreparation
of acidic buffer. 7.13 Solubility equilibria of sparingly soluble salts, solubility
product constant common ion effect on solubility of Ionic salts.
08 HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS
8.1 Position of hydrogen in the periodic table. 8.2 Dihydrogen-occurance and isotopes.
8.3 Preparation of dihydrogen 8.4 Properties of dihydrogen. 8.5 Hydrides: ionic,
covalent. and non-stiochiometric hydrides. 8.6 Water- physical properties; structure of
water, ice. Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water temporary and permanent
hardness of water. Hydrogen peroxide: preparation; physical properties; structure and
chemical properties; storage and uses. Heavy water. 8.9 Hydrogen as a fuel.
9. s– BLOCK ELEMENTS: (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group 1 Elements: 9.1 Alkali metals; electronic configurations; atomic and ionic radii;
ionization enthalpy; hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses.
9.2 General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: oxides; halides; salts
of oxy acids. 9.3 Anomalous properties of lithium: differences and similarities with other
alkali metals, diagonal relationship; similarities between lithium and magnesium.
9.4 Some important compounds of sodium- Sodium carbonate; sodium chloride; sodium
hydroxide; sodium hydrogen carbonate. 9.5 Biological importance of sodium and
Group 2 Elements: 9.6 Alkaline earth elements; electronic configuration; ionization
enthalpy; hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses. 9.7
General characteristics of compounds of the alkaline earth metals: oxides, hydroxides,
halides, salts of oxyacids (carbonates; sulphates and nitrates). 9.8 Anomalous behavior
of beryllium; its diagonal relationship with aluminum. 9.9 Some important compounds
of calcium: Preparation and uses of calcium oxide ; calcium hydroxide; calcium
carbonate; plaster of paris; cement. 9.10 Biological importance of calcium and
10. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS:GROUP-13
(BORON FAMILY) 10.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii,
ionization enthalpy, electro negativity; physical & chemical properties. 10.2 Important
trends and anomalous properties of boron. 10.3 Some important compounds of boron –
borax, ortho boric acid, diborane. 10.4 Uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds.
11. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP-14
(CARBON FAMILY) 11.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii,
ionization enthalpy, electro negativity; physical & chemical properties. 11.2 Important
trends and anomalous properties of carbon. 11.3 Allotropes of carbon. 11.4 Uses of
carbon. 11.5 Some important compounds of carbon and silicon – carbonmonoxide,
carbon dioxide, Silica, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
12.1 Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil Pollutions. 12.2 Environmental pollution.
12.3 Atmospheric pollution; gaseous pollution; gaseous air pollutants (oxides of
sulphur; oxides of nitrogen; hydro carbons; oxides of carbon (CO; CO2), Global warning
and green house effect. 12.4 Acid Rain- particulate pollutants- smog. 12.5 Stratospheric
Pollution: formation and breakdown of ozone- ozone hole- effects of depletion of the
ozone layer. 12.6 Water Pollution: causes of water pollution; international standards for
drinking water. 12.7 Soil Pollution: pesticides, industrial wastes. 12.8 Strategies to
control environmental pollution- waste management- collection and disposal.
12.9 Green chemistry: green chemistry in day-to-day life; dry cleaning of clothes;
bleaching of paper; synthesis of chemicals.
13. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- SOME BASIC PRINCIPLESAND TECHNIQUES
13.1 General introduction. 13.2 Tetravalency of carbon: shapes of organic compounds.
13.3 Structural representations of organic compounds. 13.4 Classification of organic
compounds. 13.5 Nomenclature of organic compounds. 13.6 Isomerism. 13.7
Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms. 13.7.1 Fission of covalent bond.
13.7.2 Nucleophiles and electrophiles. 13.7.3 Electron movements in organic reactions.
13.7.4 Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds. 13.7.5 Types of Organic
reactions. 13.8 Methods of purification of organic compounds. 13 9 Qualitative
elemental analysis of organic compounds. 13.10 Quantitative elemental analysis of
13.11 Classification of Hydrocarbons. 13.12 Alkanes – nomenclature, isomerism
(structural and conformations of ethane only) 13.12.1 Preparation of alkanes 13.12.2
Properties – physical properties and chemical reactivity, substitution reactionshalogenation
(free radical mechanism), combustion, controlled oxidation, isomerisation,
aromatization, reaction with steam and Pyrolysis. 13.13 Alkenes- Nomenclature,
structure of ethane, Isomerism (structural and geometrical). 13.13.1 Methods of
preparation. 13.13.2 Properties- Physical and chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen,
halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides (Mechanism- ionic and peroxide effect,
Markovnikov’s, anti-Markovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, ozonolysis and
polymerization. 13.14 Alkynes – nomenclature arid isomerism, structure of acetylene.
Methods of preparation of acetylene. 13.14.1 Physical properties, chemical reactionsacidic
character of acetylene, addition reactions- of hydrogen, halogen, hydrogen
halides and water. Polymerization. 13.15 Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and
isomerism. Structure of benzene, resonance and aromaticity. 13.15.1 Preparation of
benzene. Physical properties. Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic
substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- nitration, sulphonation, halogenation,
Friedel-Craft’s alkylation and acylation. 13.15.2 Directive influence of functional groups
in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
ZOOLOGY – I
UNIT- I: ZOOLOGY – Diversity of Living World
1.1. What is life?
1.2. Nature, Scope & meaning of zoology
1.3. Branches of Zoology
1.4. Need for classification- Zoos as tools for the study of taxonomy
1.5. Basic principles of Classification: Biological system of classification- (Phylogenetic
1.6. Levels or Hierarchy of classification
1.7. Nomenclature – Bi & Trinominal
1.8. Species concept
1.9. Kingdom Animalia
1.10. Biodiversity – Meaning and distribution (Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecosystem
diversity (alpha,beta and gama), other attributes of biodiversity, role of biodiversity,
threats to biodiveristy, methods of conservation, IUCN Red data books, Conservation
of wild life in India – Legislation, Preservation, Organisations, Threatened species.
UNIT- II: STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN ANIMALS
2.1. Levels of organization, Multicellularity: Diploblastic & Triploblastic conditions
2.2. Asymmetry, Symmetry: Radial symmetry, and Bilateral symmetry
2.3. Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates and Eucoelomates: Schizo & Entero coelomates
2.4. Tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous tissues. (make it a little more
UNIT- III: ANIMAL DIVERSITY – I:
INVERTEBRATE PHYLA General Characters – Strictly restrict to 8 salient
features only classification up to Classes with two or three examples – Brief
3.6. Annelida (Including Brief type study of Earthworm)
UNIT- IV: ANIMAL DIVERSITY – II: PHYLUM : CHORDATA
4.0. Phylum :Chordata
4.1. Sub phylum: Urochordata
4.2. Sub phylum: Cephalochordata
4.3. Sub phylum : Vertebrata
4.4. Super class: Agnatha
4.4.1. Class Cyclostomata
4.5. Super class: Gnathostomata
4.5.1. Super class pisces
4.5.2. Class: Chondricthyes
4.5.3. Class: Osteichthyes
4.6.1. Class: Amphibia (Including brief type study of Frog)
4.6.2. Class: Reptilia
4.6.3. Class: Aves
4.6.4. Class: Mammalia
UNIT- V: LOCOMOTION & REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA
5.1. Locomotion: Definition, types of locomotor structures pseudopodia (basic idea of
pseudopodia without going into different types), flagella & cilia (Brief account giving
two examples each)
5.2. Flagellar & Ciliary movement – Effective & Recovery strokes in Euglena, Synchronal &
Metachronal movements in Paramecium.
5.3. Reproduction: Definition, types. Asexual Reproduction: Transeverse binary fission in
Paramecium & Longitudinal binary fission in Euglena. Multiple fission,
5.4. Sexual Reproduction.
UNIT- VI: BIOLOGY & HUMAN WELFARE
6.1. Parasitism and parasitic adaptation
6.2. Health and disease: introduction (follow NCERT) Life cycle, Pathogenecity, Treatment &
Prevention (Brief account only)
1. Entamoeba histolytica 2. Plasmodium vivax 3.Ascaris lumbricoides
4. Wuchereria bancrofti
6.3. Brief account of pathogenecity, treatment & prevention of Typhoid, Pneumonia,
Common cold, & Ring worm.
6.4. Drugs and Alcohol absuse
UNIT- VII: TYPE STUDY OF PERIPLANETA AMERICANA
7.1. Habitat and habits
7.2. External features
7.4. Digestive system
7.5. Respiratory system
7.6. Circulatory system
7.7. Excretory system
7.8. Nervous system – sense organs, structure of Ommatidium.
7.9. Reproductive system
UNIT- VIII: ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
8.1. Organisms and Environment: Ecology, population, communities, habitat, niche, biome
and ecosphere (definitions only)
8.2. Ecosystem: Elementary aspects onlyAbiotic factors- Light, Temperature & Water
(Biological effects only), Ecological adaptations
8.3. Population interactions
8.4. Ecosystems: Types, Components, Lake ecosystem
8.5. Food chains, Food web, Productivity and Energy flow in Ecosystem, Ecological pyramids
– Pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy.
8.6. Nutritient cycling – Carbon, Nitrogen, & Phosphorous cycles (Brief account)
8.7 Population attributes: Growth, Natality and Mortality, Age distribution, Population
8.8. Environmental issues