** ****M.P.C. with EAMCET**

In ISO colleges we provide **M.P.C. with EAMCET. MPC** Group is a part of the Science stream. This group is also known as PCM Group. It stands for Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics – the subjects chosen by a student in 12th Science stream. Before heading to the meat of the matter – courses after 12th **MPC** – let me clarify a few things.

**Eamcet**

25% of your Math, physics, and chemistry aggregate marks and 75% of your eamcet marks.

Math A & B – 75+75+75+75 = 300

Physics (theory + practicals) – 60+60+30= 150

Chemistry (theory + practicals) – 60+60+30=150

Total is 600 marks.

So, 25% of however much ever you score out of 600 will be taken into count.

#### Eligibility

SSC (10th Standard)

#### Curriculum

## TELANGANA STATE BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION,

HYDERABAD

## MATHEMATICS – IA

SYLLABUS

(w.e.f. 2012-13)

1. Functions

1.1 Types of functions – Definitions

1.2 Inverse functions and Theorems

1.3 Domain, Range, Inverse of real valued functions

2. Mathematical Induction

2.1 Principle of Mathematical Induction & Theorems

2.2 Applications of Mathematical Induction

2.3 Problems on divisibility

3. Matrices

3.1 Types of matrices

3.2 Scalar multiple of a matrix and multiplication of Matrices

3.3 Transpose of a matrix

3.4 Determinants

3.5 Adjoint and Inverse of a matrix

3.6 Solution of simultaneous linear equations

3.7 Consistency and inconsistency of Equations- Rank of a matrix

4. Addition of Vectors

4.1 Vectors as a triad of real numbers

4.2 Classification of vectors

4.3 Addition of vectors

4.4 Scalar multiplication

2

4.5 Angle between two non- zero vectors

4.6 Linear combination of vectors

4.7 Component of a vector in three dimensions

4.8 Vector equations of line and plane including their Cartesian equivalent forms

5. Product of vectors

5.1 Scalar Product – Geometrical Interpretations orthogonal projections

5.2 Properties of dot product

5.3 Expression of dot product in i, j, k system – Angle between two vectors

5.4 Geometrical Vector methods

5.5 Vector equations of plane in normal form

5.7 Angle between two planes

5.7 Vector product of two vectors and properties

5.8 Vector product in i, j, k system

5.9 Vector Areas

5.10 Scalar Triple Product

5.11 Vector equations of plane in different forms, skew lines, shortest distance

and their Cartesian equivalents. Plane through the line of intersection of two

planes, condition for coplanarity of two lines, perpendicular distance of a

point from a plane, Angle between line and a plane, Cartesian equivalents of

all these results

5.12 Vector Triple Product – Results

6. Trigonometric Ratios up to Transformations

6.1 Graphs and Periodicity of Trigonometric functions

6.2 Trigonometric ratios and Compound angles

6.3 Trigonometric ratios of multiple and sub-multiple angles

6.4 Transformations – Sum and Product rules

6.4 Transformations – Sum and Product rules

7. Trigonometric Equations

7.1 General Solution of Trigonometric Equations

7.2 Simple Trigonometric Equations – Solutions

3

8. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

8.1 To reduce a Trigonometric Function into a Bijection

8.2 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

8.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

8.3 Half angle formulae and areas of a triangle

8.4 In-circle and Ex-circle of a Triangle

9. Hyperbolic Functions

9.1 Definition of Hyperbolic Function –Graphs

9.2 Definition of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions – Graphs

9.3 Addition formulas of Hyperbolic Functions

10. Properties of Triangles

10.1 Relation between sides and angles of a Triangle

10.2 Sine, Cosine, Tangent and Projection rules

10.3 Half angle formula and areas of triangle

10.4 In-circle and Ex-circle of a Triangle

***

## PHYSICS – I

SYLLABUS

(w.e.f. 2012-13)

CHAPTER – 1: PHYSICAL WORLD

1.1. What is Physics ?

1.2. Scope and excitement of physics

1.3. Physics, technology and society

1.4. Fundamental forces in nature

1.5. Nature of physical laws

CHAPTER –2: UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The International system of units

2.3 Measurement of length, Measurement of Large Distances, Estimation of Very

Small Distances: Size of Molecule, Range of Lengths

2.4 Measurement of Mass, Range of Mass

2.5 Measurement of Time

2.6 Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement, Systematic

errors, random errors, least count error, Absolute Error, Relative Error and

Percentage Error, Combination of Errors

2.7 Significant Figures, Rules for Arithmetic Operations with Significant Figures,

Rounding off the Uncertain Digits, Rules for Etermining the Uncertainly in the

Results of Arithmatic Calculations

2.8 Dimensions of Physical Quantities

2.9 Dimensional Formulae and dimensional equations

2.10 Dimensional Analysis and its Applications, Checking the Dimensional Consistency

of Equations, Deducting Ration among the Physical Quantities

2

Chapter-3: MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Position, Path Length and Displacement

3.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed

3.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed

3.5 Acceleration

3.6 Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion

3.7 Relative velocity

– Elements of Calculus

Chapter –4: MOTION IN A PLANE

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Scalars and Vectors, Position and Displacement Vectors, Equality of Vectors

4.3 Multiplication of Vectors by real members

4.4 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors – graphical method

4.5 Resolution of vectors

4.6 Vector addition Analytical method

4.7 Motion in a plane, Position Vector and Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration

4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration

4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions

4.10 Projectile Motion, Equation of path of a projectile, Time of Maximum height,

Maximum height of a projectile, Horizontal range of projectile

4.11 Uniform circular motion

Chapter-5: LAWS OF MOTION

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy

5.3 The law of inertia

5.4 Newton’s first law of Motion

5.5 Newton’s second law of Motion

5.6 Newton’s third law of Motion, Impulse

5.7 Conservation of momentum

5.8 Equilibrium of a particle

5.9 Common forces in Mechanics, Friction

3

5.10 Circular Motion, Motion of a car on a level road, Motion of a car on a banked road

5.11 Solving problems in Mechanics

Chapter –6: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: The work-energy theorem.

6.3 Work

6.4 Kinetic Energy

6.5 Work done by a variable force

6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force

6.7 The concept of Potential Energy

6.8 The conservation of Mechanical Energy

6.9 The Potential Energy of a spring

6.10 Various forms of energy: the law of conservation of Energy. Heat, Chemical

Energy, Electrical Energy, The Equivalence of a Mass and Energy, Nuclear

Energy, The Principle of Conservation of Energy.

6.11 Power

6.12 Collisions, Elastic and Inelastic Collisions, Collisions in one dimension, Coefficent

– Power consumption in walking

Chapter-7: SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

7.1 Introduction, What kind of motion can a rigid body have?

7.2 Centre of mass. Centre of gravity

7.3 Motion of Centre of Mass

7.4 Linear momentum of a System of particles

7.5 Vector product of Two Vectors

7.6 Angular Velocity and its relation with linear velocity, Angular acceleration,

kinematics of Rotational motion about a fixed axis.

7.7 Torque and angular Momentum, Moment of force (Torque), Angular momentum

of a particle, Torque and angular momentum for a system of a particles,

conservation of angular momentum

7.8 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body, Principle of moments

7.9 Moment of Inertia

7.10 Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axis, Theorem of perpendicular axes,

Theorem of parallel axes

7.11 Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis.

4

7.12 Angular momentum in case of rotations about a fixed axis, Conservation of

angular momentum

7.13 Rolling Motion, Kinetic Energy of Rolling Motion

Chapter 8: OSCILLATIONS

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Periodic and Oscillatory Motions, Period and frequency, Displacement

8.3 Simple Harmonic Motions (SHM)

8.4 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion

8.5 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion

8.6 Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion

8.7 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

8.8 Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion, Oscillations due to a Spring,

The Simple Pendulum

8.9 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion

8.10 Forced Oscillations and Resonance

Chapter –9: GRAVITATION

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Kepler’s Laws

9.3 Universal Law of Gravitation

9.4 The Gravitational Constant

9.5 Acceleration due to Gravity of the Earth

9.6 Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of Earth

9.7 Gravitational Potential Energy

9.8 Escape Speed

9.9 Earth Satellite

9.10 Energy of an orbiting satellite

9.11 Geostationary and Polar satellites

9.12 Weightlessness

Chater –10: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Elastic behavior of Solids

10.3 Stress and Strain

5

10.4 Hook’s law

10.5 Stress – strain curve

10.6 Elastic Moduli, Young’s Modulus, Determination of Yong’s Modulus of the Material

of a Wire, Shear Modulus Bulk Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio.

10.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of Materials.

Chapter – 11: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Pressure, Pascal’s Law, Variation of Pressure with Depth, Atmospheric Pressure

and Gauge Pressure, Hydraulic Machines

11.3 Streamline flow

11.4 Bernoulli’s principle, Speed of Efflux, Torricelli’s Law, Venturi-meter, Blood Flow

and Heart Attack, Dynamic Lift

11.5 Viscosity, Variation of Viscosity of fluids with temperature, Stoke’s Law

11.6 Reynolds number

11.7 Surface Tension, Surface Energy, Surface Energy and Surface Tension, Angle of

Contact, Drops and Bubbles, Capillary Rise, Detergents and Surface Tension;

What is blood pressure

Chapter – 12: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Temperature and Heat

12.3 Measurement of Temperature

12.4 Ideal – Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature

12.5 Thermal Expansion

12.6 Specific Heat Capacity

12.7 Calorimetry

12.8 Charge of State, Regelation, Latent Heat

12.9 Heat transfer, Conduction, thermal conductivity, Convection, Radiation,

Blackbody Radiation, Greenhouse Effect

12.10 Newton’s Law of Cooling.

Chapter –13: THERMODYNAMICS:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Thermal Equilibrium

13.3 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

6

13.4 Heat, Internal Energy and Work

13.5 First Law of Thermodynamics

13.6 Specific Heat Capacity

13.7 Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State

13.8 Thermodynamic Processes, Quasi-static Isothermal Process, Adiabatic Process,

Irochoric Process, Cyclic Process.

13.9 Heat Engines

13.10 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

13.11 Second Law of Thermodynamics

13.12 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

13.13 Carrot Engine, Carnot’s Theorem.

CHAPTER – 14: KINETIC THEORY

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Molecular Nature of Matter

14.3 Behaviour of Gases

14.4 Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas, Pressure of an Ideal Gas

14.5 Laws of equipartition of energy

14.6 Specific Heat Capacity, Monatomic Gases, Diatomic Gases, Polyatomic Gases,

Specific Heat Capacity of Solids, Specific Heat Capacity of Water

14.7 Mean Free Path

***

## CHEMISTRY – I

SYLLABUS

(w.e.f. 2012-13)

01 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

1.1 Sub- atomic particles. 1.2 Atomic models- Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom.

1.3 Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom. 1.3.1 Nature of electromagnetic radiation.

1.3.2 Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation- Planck’s quantum theory. 1.4 Bohr’s

model for hydrogen atom. 1.4.1 Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen. 1.4.2 Limitations

of Bohr’s model. 1.5 Quantum mechanical considerations of sub atomic particles. 1.5.1 Dual

behaviour of matter. 1.5.2 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. 1.6 Quantum mechanical

model of an atom. Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom. 1.6.1 Orbitals

and quantum numbers. 1.6.2 Shapes of atomic orbitals. 1.6.3 Energies of orbitals. 1.6.4

Filling of orbitals in atoms, aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of

maximum multiplicity. 1.6.5 Electronic configurations of atoms. 1.6.6 Stability of half filled

and completely filled orbitals.

02 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY OF PROPERTIES

2.1 Need to classify elements. 2.2 Genesis of periodic classification. 2.3 Modern periodic law

and present form of the periodic table. 2.4 Nomenclature of elements with atomic number

greater than 100. 2.5 Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table.

2.6 Electronic configuration and types of elements s.p.d. and f blocks. 2.7.1 Trends in

physical properties: (a) Atomic radius, (b) Ionic radius, (c) Variation of size in inner

transition elements, (d) Ionization enthalpy, (e) Electron gain enthalpy, (f) Electro

negativity. 2.7.2 Periodic trends in chemical properties: (a) Valence or Oxidation states,

(b) Anomalous properties of second period elements – diagonal relationship. 2.7.3 Periodic

trends and chemical reactivity

2

03 CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

3.1 Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding. 3.2 Ionic or electrovalent bond – Factors

favourable for the formation of ionic compounds-Crystal structure of sodium chloride-General

properties of ionic compounds. 3.3 Bond Parameters – bond length, bond angle, bond enthalpy,

bond order, and resonance-Polarity of bonds dipole moment. 3.4 Valence Shell Electron Pair

Repulsion (VSEPR) theories. Predicting the geometry of simple molecules. 3.5 Valence bond

theory-Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals

strength of sigma and pi bonds-Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds. 3.6

Hybridisation-different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals- shapes of simple

covalent molecules. 3.7 Coordinate bond -definition with examples. 3.8 Molecular orbital theory

– Formation of molecular orbitals. Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-conditions for

combination of atomic orbitals – Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals -Bonding in some

homo nuclear diatomic molecules- H2, He2, Li2, B2, C2, N2 and 02. 3.9 Hydrogen bonding-cause

of formation of hydrogen bond-Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular-General

properties of hydrogen bonds.

04 STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS

4. 1 Intermolecular forces. 4 2 Thermal Energy. 4.3 Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal

interactions. 4.4 The Gaseous State. 4.5 The Gas Laws. 4.6 Ideal gas equation.

4.7 Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s Law of partial pressures. 4.8 Kinetic molecular

theory of gases. 4.9 Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas (No derivation)- Deduction of gas

laws from Kinetic gas equation. 4.10 Distribution of molecular speeds – rms. average and

most probable speeds-Kinetic energy of gas molecules. 4.11 Behaviour of real gases –

Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour – Compressibility factor Vs Pressure diagrams of real

gases. 4.12 Liquefaction of gases. 4.13 Liquid State – Properties of Liquids in terms of Inter

molecular interactions – Vapour pressure. Viscosity and Surface tension (Qualitative idea

only. No mathematical derivation).

3

05 STOICHIOMETRY

5.1 Some Basic Concepts – Properties of matter – uncertainty in Measurement-significant

figures, dimensional analysis 5.2 Laws of Chemical Combinations – Law of Conservation of

mass, law of definite proportions, law of multiple proportions, Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous

volumes, Dalton’s atomic theory, Avogadro law, principles and examples. 5.3 Atomic and

molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass concept of equivalent weight.

5.4 Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular

formulae of compounds. 5.5 Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations.

5.6 Methods of expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction,

molarity, molality and normality. 5.7 Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions,

oxidation and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer. 5.8

Oxidation number concept. 5.9 Types of Redox reactions-combination, decomposition,

displacement and disproportionation reactions. 5.10 Balancing of redox reactions –

oxidation number method, half reaction (ioa-electron) method. 5.11 Redox reactions in

titrimetry.

06 THERMODYNAMICS

6.1 Thermodynamic terms. 6.1.1 The system and the surroundings. 6.1.2. Types of systems

and surroundings. 6.1.3 The state of the system. 6.1.4 The Internal Energy as a state

function, (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics. 6.2

Applications. 6.2.1 Work. 6.2.2 Enthalpy. H- a useful new state function. 6.2.3 Extensive and

intensive properties. 6.2.4 Heat capacity. 6.2.5 The relationship between Cp and Cv. 6.3

Measurement of “U and H”: caiorimetry. 6.4 Enthalpy change, ‘rH’ of reactions – reaction

Enthalpy, (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions, (b) Enthalpy changes during transformations,

(c) Standard enthalpy of formation, (d) Thermo chemical equations, (e) Hess’s law of

constant Heat summation. 6.5 Enthalpies for different types of reactions, (a) Standard

enthalpy of combustion (“c H°) (b) Enthalpy of atomization (“a Ho). phase transition,

sublimation and ionization, (c) Bond Enthalpy (“bond Hf ) (d) Enthalpy of solution (“sol f )

and dilution. 6.6 Spontaneity, (a) Is decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? (b)

Entropy and spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, (c) Gibbs Energy and

spontaneity. 6.7 Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium. 6.8 Absolute entropy and the third

law of thermodynamics.

4

07 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES

7.1 Equilibrium in physical process. 7.2 Equilibrium in chemical process – dynamic

equilibrium. 7.3 Law of chemical equilibrium – Law of mass action and equilibrium

constant. 7.4 Homogeneous equilibria, equilibrium constant in gaseous systems,

Relationship between KP, and KC 7.5 Heterogeneous equilibria. 7.6 Applications of

equilibrium constant. 7.7 Relationship between equilibrium constant K, reaction quotient

Q and Gibbs energy G. 7.8 Factors affecting equilibria.- Le-chatelier’s principle

application to industrial synthesis of ammonia and sulphur trioxide. J.9 Ionic Equilibrium

in solutions. 7.10 Acids, bases and salts- Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts

of acids and bases. 7.11 Ionisation of acids and bases -Ionisation constant of water and

it’s ionic product- pH scale-ionisation constants, of weak acids-ionisation of weak basesrelation

between Ka and Kb and poly basic acids and di and poly acidic bases-factors

affecting acid strength-common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-hydrolysis

of salts and pH of their solutions. 7.12 Buffer solutions-designing of buffer solutionpreparation

of acidic buffer. 7.13 Solubility equilibria of sparingly soluble salts, solubility

product constant common ion effect on solubility of Ionic salts.

08 HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS

8.1 Position of hydrogen in the periodic table. 8.2 Dihydrogen-occurance and isotopes.

8.3 Preparation of dihydrogen 8.4 Properties of dihydrogen. 8.5 Hydrides: ionic,

covalent. and non-stiochiometric hydrides. 8.6 Water- physical properties; structure of

water, ice. Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water temporary and permanent

hardness of water. Hydrogen peroxide: preparation; physical properties; structure and

chemical properties; storage and uses. Heavy water. 8.9 Hydrogen as a fuel.

5

9. s– BLOCK ELEMENTS: (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)

Group 1 Elements: 9.1 Alkali metals; electronic configurations; atomic and ionic radii;

ionization enthalpy; hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses.

9.2 General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: oxides; halides; salts

of oxy acids. 9.3 Anomalous properties of lithium: differences and similarities with other

alkali metals, diagonal relationship; similarities between lithium and magnesium.

9.4 Some important compounds of sodium- Sodium carbonate; sodium chloride; sodium

hydroxide; sodium hydrogen carbonate. 9.5 Biological importance of sodium and

potassium.

Group 2 Elements: 9.6 Alkaline earth elements; electronic configuration; ionization

enthalpy; hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses. 9.7

General characteristics of compounds of the alkaline earth metals: oxides, hydroxides,

halides, salts of oxyacids (carbonates; sulphates and nitrates). 9.8 Anomalous behavior

of beryllium; its diagonal relationship with aluminum. 9.9 Some important compounds

of calcium: Preparation and uses of calcium oxide ; calcium hydroxide; calcium

carbonate; plaster of paris; cement. 9.10 Biological importance of calcium and

magnesium.

10. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS:GROUP-13

(BORON FAMILY) 10.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii,

ionization enthalpy, electro negativity; physical & chemical properties. 10.2 Important

trends and anomalous properties of boron. 10.3 Some important compounds of boron –

borax, ortho boric acid, diborane. 10.4 Uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds.

11. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP-14

(CARBON FAMILY) 11.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii,

ionization enthalpy, electro negativity; physical & chemical properties. 11.2 Important

trends and anomalous properties of carbon. 11.3 Allotropes of carbon. 11.4 Uses of

6

carbon. 11.5 Some important compounds of carbon and silicon – carbonmonoxide,

carbon dioxide, Silica, silicones, silicates and zeolites.

12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

12.1 Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil Pollutions. 12.2 Environmental pollution.

12.3 Atmospheric pollution; gaseous pollution; gaseous air pollutants (oxides of

sulphur; oxides of nitrogen; hydro carbons; oxides of carbon (CO; CO2), Global warning

and green house effect. 12.4 Acid Rain- particulate pollutants- smog. 12.5 Stratospheric

Pollution: formation and breakdown of ozone- ozone hole- effects of depletion of the

ozone layer. 12.6 Water Pollution: causes of water pollution; international standards for

drinking water. 12.7 Soil Pollution: pesticides, industrial wastes. 12.8 Strategies to

control environmental pollution- waste management- collection and disposal.

12.9 Green chemistry: green chemistry in day-to-day life; dry cleaning of clothes;

bleaching of paper; synthesis of chemicals.

13. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- SOME BASIC PRINCIPLESAND TECHNIQUES

HYDROCARBONS

13.1 General introduction. 13.2 Tetravalency of carbon: shapes of organic compounds.

13.3 Structural representations of organic compounds. 13.4 Classification of organic

compounds. 13.5 Nomenclature of organic compounds. 13.6 Isomerism. 13.7

Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms. 13.7.1 Fission of covalent bond.

13.7.2 Nucleophiles and electrophiles. 13.7.3 Electron movements in organic reactions.

13.7.4 Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds. 13.7.5 Types of Organic

reactions. 13.8 Methods of purification of organic compounds. 13 9 Qualitative

elemental analysis of organic compounds. 13.10 Quantitative elemental analysis of

organic compounds.

7

HYDROCARBONS

13.11 Classification of Hydrocarbons. 13.12 Alkanes – nomenclature, isomerism

(structural and conformations of ethane only) 13.12.1 Preparation of alkanes 13.12.2

Properties – physical properties and chemical reactivity, substitution reactionshalogenation

(free radical mechanism), combustion, controlled oxidation, isomerisation,

aromatization, reaction with steam and Pyrolysis. 13.13 Alkenes- Nomenclature,

structure of ethane, Isomerism (structural and geometrical). 13.13.1 Methods of

preparation. 13.13.2 Properties- Physical and chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen,

halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides (Mechanism- ionic and peroxide effect,

Markovnikov’s, anti-Markovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, ozonolysis and

polymerization. 13.14 Alkynes – nomenclature arid isomerism, structure of acetylene.

Methods of preparation of acetylene. 13.14.1 Physical properties, chemical reactionsacidic

character of acetylene, addition reactions- of hydrogen, halogen, hydrogen

halides and water. Polymerization. 13.15 Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and

isomerism. Structure of benzene, resonance and aromaticity. 13.15.1 Preparation of

benzene. Physical properties. Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic

substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- nitration, sulphonation, halogenation,

Friedel-Craft’s alkylation and acylation. 13.15.2 Directive influence of functional groups

in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

***